Biofuels

Carbon-rich fossil fuels, primarily oil, coal and natural gas, provide 85% of the energy consumed in the United States. As world demand increases, oil reserves are becoming rapidly depleted. Fossil fuel use increases CO2 emissions and raises the risk of global warming. The high-energy content of liquid hydrocarbon fuels makes them the preferred energy source for all modes of transportation. Unfortunately, existing biofuels (ethanol, butanol, and plant oil-derived biodiesel) are not compatible with our existing transportation infrastructure.

The Keasling laboratory is engineering metabolic pathways in various heterologous host organisms including Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Streptomyces venezuelae for production of advanced biofuels compatible with our existing transportation infrastructure.  These advanced biofuels have the full fuel value of petroleum-based biofuels, will be transportable using existing pipelines, and can be used in existing automobiles, trucks, trains, and airplanes.  These biofuels will be produced from biosynthetic pathways that exist in plants and a variety of microorganisms (such as engineered pathways derived from fatty acid, terpene, and polyketide biosynthesis).  Large-scale production of these fuels will reduce our dependence on petroleum and reduce the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere, while allowing us to take advantage of our current transportation infrastructure.

FUNDING

Department of Energy

National Science Foundation

UC Discovery Grant Program

LINKS

jbei.org

REPRESENTATIVE PUBLICATIONS
  • S. T. Withers and J. D. Keasling. 2007. “Biosynthesis and engineering of isoprenoid small molecules.” Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 73:980-990.
  • S. T. Withers, S. S. Gottlieb, B. Lieu, J. D. Newman, and J. D. Keasling. 2007. “Identification of isopentenol biosynthetic genes from Bacillus subtilis using isoprenoid precursor toxicity.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:6277-6283.
  • H. W. Blanch, P. D. Adams, K. M. Andrews-Cramer, W. B. Frommer, B. A. Simmons, and J. D. Keasling. 2008. “Addressing the need for alternative transportation fuels: the Joint BioEnergy Institute.” ACS Chem. Biol. 3:17-20.
  • J. D. Keasling and H. Chou. 2008, “Metabolic engineering delivers next-generation biofuels.” Nat. Biotechnol. 26:298-299.
  • L. Kizer, D. J. Pitera, B. Pfleger, and J. D. Keasling. 2008. “Functional genomics for pathway optimization: application to isoprenoid production.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:3229-3241.
  • A. Mukhopadhyay, A. M. Redding, B. J. Rutherford, and J. D. Keasling. 2008. “Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel production.” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 19:228-234.
  • J. L. Fortman, S. Chhabra, A. Mukhopadhyay, H. Chou, T. S. Lee, E. Steen, and J. D. Keasling. 2008. “Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well.” Trends in Biotechnology. 26:375-381.
  • J. Kirby and J. D. Keasling. 2008. “Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for isoprenoid production.” Nat. Prod. Rep. 25:656-661.
  • S. K. Lee, H. Chou, T. S. Ham, T. S. Lee and J. D. Keasling. 2008. “Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels.” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 19:556-563.
  • E. J. Steen, R. Chan, N. Prasad, S. Myers, C. J. Petzold, A. Redding, M. Ouellet, and J. D. Keasling. 2008. “Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol.” Microb. Cell Fact. 7:36-43.
  • Y. J. Tang, R. Sapra, D. Joyner, T. C. Hazen, S. Myers, D. Reichmuth, H. Blanch, and J. D. Keasling. 2009. “Analysis of metabolic pathways and fluxes in a newly discovered thermophilic and ethanol-tolerant Geobacillus strain.” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 102:1377-1386.
  • J. Kirby and J. D. Keasling. 2009. “Biosynthesis of plant isoprenoids: perspectives for microbial engineering.” Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 60:335.355.
  • J. E. Dueber, G. C. Wu, G. R. Malmirchegini, T. S. Moon, C. J. Petzold, A. V. Ullal, K. J. Prather, and J. D. Keasling. 2009. “Synthetic protein scaffolds provide modular control over metabolic flux.” Nat. Biotechnol. 27:753-759.
  • J. M. Carothers, J. A. Goler, and J. D. Keasling. 2009. “Chemical synthesis using synthetic biology.” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20:498-503.
  • E. J. Steen, Y. Kang, G. Bokinsky, Z. Hu, A. Schirmer, A. McClure, S. B. del Cardayre, and J. D. Keasling. 2010. “Microbial production of fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals from plant biomass.” Nature 463:559-562.
  • H. R. Beller, E.-B. Goh, and J. D. Keasling. 2010. “Genes involved in long-chain alkene biosynthesis in Micrococcus luteus.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:1212-1223.
  • P. P. Peralta-Yahya and J. D. Keasling. 2010. “Advanced biofuel production in microbes.” Biotechnol. J. 5:147-162.
  • B. J. Rutherford, R. H. Dahl, R. E. Price, H. L. Szmidt, P. L. Benke, A. Mukhopadhyay, and J. D. Keasling. 2010. “Functional genomic study of exogenous n-butanol stress in Escherichia coli.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:1935-1945.
  • J. A. Dietrich, A. E. McKee, and J. D. Keasling. 2010. “High-throughput metabolic engineering: advances in small-molecule screening and selection.” Annu. Rev. Biochem. 79:563-590.
  • H. V. Scheller, S. Singh, H. Blanch, and J. D. Keasling. 2010. “The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI): Developing new biofuels by overcoming biomass recalcitrance.” Bioenerg. Res. 3:105-107.
  • M. J. Dunlop, J. D. Keasling, and A. Mukhopadhyay. 2010. “A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic feedback loop.” Syst. Synth. Biol. 4:95-104.
  • C. Wang, S. H. Yoon, A. A. Shah, Y. R. Chung, J. Y. Kim, E. S. Choi, J. D. Keasling, and S. W. Kim. 2010. “Farnesol production from Escherichia coli by harnessing the exogenous mevalonate pathway.” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 107:421-429.
  • J. D. Keasling. 2010. “Manufacturing molecules through metabolic engineering.” Science 330:1355-1358.
  • C. Rautengarten, E. Baidoo, J. D. Keasling and H. V. Scheller. 2010. “A simple method for enzymatic synthesis of unlabeled and radiolabeled hydroxycinnamate-CoA.” Bioenergy Res. 3:115-122.
  • C. J. Joshua, R. Dahl, P. I. Benke, and J. D. Keasling. 2011. “Absence of diauxie during simultaneous utilization of glucose and xylose by Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.” J. Bacteriol. 193:1293-1301.
  • A. M. Redding-Johanson, T. S. Batth, R. Chan, R. Krupa, H. L. Szmidt, P. D. Adams, J. D. Keasling, T. S. Lee, A. Mukhopadhyay, C. J. Petzold. 2011. “Targeted proteomics for metabolic pathway optimization: application to terpene production.” Metab. Eng. 13:194-203.
  • M. J. Dunlop, H. L. Szmidt, H. C. Chu, J. D. Keasling, M. Hadi, A. Mukhopadhyay. 2011. “A targeted bioprospecting approach for engineering microbial biofuel tolerance.” Mol. Sys. Biol. 7:487.
  • P. P. Peralta-Yahya, M. Ouellet, R. Chan, A. Mukhopadhyay, J. D. Keasling, and T. S. Lee. 2011. “Identification and microbial production of a terpene-based advanced biofuel.” Nat. Comm. 2:483.
  • S. M. Ma, D. E. Garcia, A. M. Redding-Johanson, G. D. Friedland, R. Chan, T. S. Batth, J. R. Haliburton, D. Chivian, J. D. Keasling, C. J. Petzold, T. S. Lee, S. R. Chhabra. 2011. “Optimization of a heterologous mevalonate pathway through use of variant HMG-CoA reductases.” Met. Eng. 13:588-597.
  • H. R. Beller, E. B. Goh, and J. D. Keasling. 2011. “Definitive alkene identification needed for in vitro studies with ole (olefin biosynthesis) proteins.” J. Biol. Chem. 286:1e11.
  • M. Ouellet, S. Datta, D. C. Dibble, P. R. Tamrakar, P. I. Benke, C. Li, S. Singh, K. L. Sale, P. D. Adams, J. D. Keasling, B. A. Simmons, B. M. Holmes and A. Mukhopadhyay. 2011. “Impact of ionic liquid pretreated plant biomass on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth and biofuel production.” Green Chem. 13:2743-2749.
  • F. Zhang, S. Rodriquez, and J. D. Keasling. 2011. “Metabolic engineering of microbial pathways for advanced biofuels production.” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 22:775-783.
  • R. P. McAndrew, P. P. Peralta-Yahya, A. DeGiovanni, J. H. Pereira, M. Z. Hadi, J. D. Keasling, and P. D. Adams. 2011. “Structure of a three-domain sesquiterpene synthase: a prospective target?for advanced biofuels production.” Structure 19:1876-1884.
  • G. Bokinsky, P. Peralta-Yahya, A. George, B. M. Holmes, E. J. Steen, J. Dietrich, T. S. Lee, D. Tullman-Ercek, C. Voigt, B. A. Simmons, J. D. Keasling. 2011. “Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:19949-19954.
  • A. George, K. Tran, T. J. Morgan, P. Benke, C. Berrueco, E. Lorente, B. Wu, J. D. Keasling, B. A. Simmon, and B. Holmes. 2011. “The effect of ionic liquid cation and anion combinations on the macromolecular structure of lignins.” Green Chemistry 13:3375-3385.
  • E. B. Goh, E. E. Baidoo, J. D. Keasling, and H. R. Beller. 2012. “Engineering of bacterial methyl ketone synthesis for biofuels.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78:70-80.
  • D. Groff, P. I. Benke, T. S. Batth, G. Bokinsky, C. J. Petzold, P. D. Adams, and J. D. Keasling. 2012. “Supplementation of intracellular XylR leads to coutilization of hemicellulose sugars.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78:2221-2229.
  • C. Rautengarten, B. Ebert, M. Ouellet, M. Nafisi, E. E.K. Baidoo, P. Benke, M. Stranne, A. Mukhopadhyay, J. D. Keasling, Y. Sakuragi, and H. V. Scheller. 2012. “The Arabidopsis deficient in cutin ferulate (DCF) encodes a transferase required for feruloylation of ?-hydroxy fatty acids in cutin polyester.” Plant Phys. 158:654-665.
  • J. D. Keasling. 2012. “Synthetic biology and the development of tools for metabolic engineering.” Met. Eng. 14:189-195.
  • F. Zhang, J. M. Carothers, and J. D. Keasling. 2012. “Design of a dynamic sensor-regulator system for production of chemicals and fuels derived from fatty acids.” Nat. Biotechnol. 30:354-359.
  • A. Eudes, A. George, P. Mukerjee, J. S. Kim, B. Pollet, P. I. Benke, F. Yang, P. Mitra, L. Sun, O. P. Cetinkol, S. Chabout, G. Mouille, L. Soubigou-Taconnat, S. Balzergue, S. Singh, B. M. Holmes, A. Mukhopadhyay, J. D. Keasling, B. A. Simmons, C. Lapierre, J. Ralph, D. Loqué. 2012. “Biosynthesis and incorporation of side-chain-truncated lignin monomers to reduce lignin polymerization and enhance saccharification.” Plant Biotechnol J. 10:609-620.
  • P. Singh, T. S. Batth, D. Juminaga, R. H. Dahl, J. D. Keasling, P. D. Adams, and C. J. Petzold. 2012. “Application of targeted proteomics to metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.” Proteomics 12:1289-1299.
  • J. L. Park, E. J. Steen, H. Burd, S. S. Evans, A. M. Redding-Johanson, T. Batth, P. I. Benke, P. D’haeseleer, N. Sun, K. L. Sale, J. D. Keasling, C. J. Petzold, A. Mukhopadhyay, S. W. Singer, B. A. Simmons, and J. M. Gladden. 2012. “A thermophilic ionic liquid-tolerant cocktail for the production of cellulosic biofuels.” PLoS One 7:e37010.
  • Z. Chen, G. D. Friedland, J. H. Pereira, S. A. Reveco, R. Chan, J. I. Park, M. P. Thelen, P. D. Adams, A. P. Arkin, J. D. Keasling, H. W. Blanch, B. A. Simmons, D. Chivian, and S. R. Chhabra. 2012. “Tracing determinants of dual-substrate specificity in glycoside hydrolase family 5.” J. Biol. Chem. 287:25335-25343.
  • P. P. Peralta-Yahya, F. Zhang, S. B. del Cardayre, and J. D. Keasling. 2012. “Microbial engineering for the production of advanced biofuels.” Nature 488:320-328.
  • E. A. Rennie, S. F. Hansen, E. Baidoo, M. Hadi, J. D. Keasling, H. Scheller. 2012. “Three members of the Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase family 8 are xylan glucuronosyltransferases.” Plant Physiol. 159:1408-1417.
  • J. H. Pereira, E.-B. Goh, J. D. Keasling, H. R. Beller, and P. D. Adams. 2012. “Structure of FabH and factors affecting the distribution of branched fatty acids in Micrococcus luteus.” Acta Crystallographica D. 68:1320-1328.
  • S. Yuzawa, W. Kim, L. Katz, and J. D. Keasling. 2012. “Heterologous production of polyketides by modular type I polyketide synthases in Escherichia coli.” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 23:725-735.
  • H. H. Chou and J. D. Keasling. 2012. “Five-carbon alcohols are produced from isopentenyl diphosphate using a synthetic pathway.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78:7829-7855.
  • D. Chiniquy, V. Sharma, A. Schultink, E. E. Baidoo, C. Rautengarten, K. Cheng, A. Carroll, P. Ulvskov, J. Harholt, J. D. Keasling, M. Pauly, H. V. Scheller, and P. C. Ronald. 2012. “XAX1 from glycosyltransferase family 61 mediates xylosyltransfer to rice xylan.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109:17117-17122.
  • F. Zhang, M. Ouellet, T. Batth, P. D. Adams, C. J. Petzold, A. Mukhopadhyay, and J. D. Keasling. 2012. “Enhancing fatty acid production by the expression of the regulatory transcription factor FadR.” Met. Eng. 14:653-660.
  • A. E. Mckee, B. J. Rutherford, D. C. Chivian, E. K. Baidoo, D. Juminaga, D. Kuo, P. I. Benke, J. A. Dietrich, S. M. Ma, A. P. Arkin, C. J. Petzold, P. D. Adams, J. D. Keasling and S. R. Chhabra. 2012. “Manipulation of the carbon storage regulator system for metabolite remodeling and biofuel production in Escherichia coli.” Microb. Cell Fact. 11:79 (doi:10.1186/1475-2859-11-79).
  • J. D. Keasling, A. Mendoza, and P. S. Baran. 2012. “Synthesis: A constructive debate.” Nature 492:188-189.
  • J. D. Keasling. 2012. “Engineering biology for drugs and fuels.” Proc. Amer. Philosoph. Soc. 156:283-294.
  • Y. Kung, W. Runguphan, and J. D. Keasling. 2012. “From fields to fuels: recent advances in the microbial production of biofuels.” ACS Synth. Biol. 1:498-513.
  • S. M. Paap, T. H. West, D. K. Manley, E. J. Steen, H. R. Beller, J. D. Keasling, D. C. Dibble, S. Chana, and B. A. Simmons. 2013. “Biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass: A comparative analysis of environmental and economic performance.” Biomass Bioenergy 49:49-62.
  • B. Ozaydin, H. Burd, T. S. Lee, and J. D. Keasling. 2013. “Carotenoid-based phenotypic screen of the yeast deletion collection reveals new genes with roles in isoprenoid production.” Met. Eng. 15:174-183.
  • J. A. Dietrich, D. L. Shis, A. Alikhani, and J. D. Keasling. 2013. “Transcription factor-based screens and synthetic selections for microbial small-molecule biosynthesis.” ACS Synth. Biol. 2:47-58.
  • L. E. Bartley, M. L. Peck, S. R. Kim, B. Ebert, C. Maniseri, D. Chiniquy, R. Sykes, L. Gao, C. Rautengarten, M. E. Vega-Sanchez, P. I. Benke, P. E. Canlas, P. Cao, S. Brewer, F. Lin, W. L. Smith, X. Zhang, J. D. Keasling, R. E. Jentoft, S. B. Foster, J. Zhou, A. Ziebell, G. An, H. V. Scheller, and P. D. Ronald. 2013. “Overexpression of a BAHD Acyltransferase, OsAt10, alters rice cell wall hydroxycinnamic acid content and saccharification.” Plant Physiol. 161:1615-1633.
  • D. Groff, A. George, N. Sun, N. Sathitsuksanoh, G. Bokinsky, B. A. Simmons, B. M. Holmes, and J. D. Keasling. 2013. Acid enhanced ionic liquid pretreatment of biomass. Green Chem. 15:1264-1267.
  • G. Bokinsky, E. E.K. Baidoo, S. Akella, H. Burd, D. Weaver, J. Alonso-Gutierrez, H. García-Martín, T. S. Lee, J. D. Keasling. 2013. “HipA-triggered growth arrest and ?-lactam tolerance in Escherichia coli is mediated by RelA-dependent ppGpp synthesis.” J. Bacteriol. 195:3173-3182.
  • J. Alonso-Gutierrez, R. Chan, T. S Batth, P. D Adams, J. D. Keasling, C. J Petzold, and T. S. Lee. 2013. “Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for limonene and perillyl alcohol production. Met. Eng. 19:33-41.
  • H. H. Chou and J. D. Keasling. 2013. “Programming adaptive control to evolve increased metabolite production.” Nat. Commun. 4:2595. DOI: 10:1038/ncomms3595.
  • S. Gille, V. Sharma, E. E. Baidoo, J. D. Keasling, H. V. Scheller, and M. Pauly. 2013. “Arabinosylation of a Yariv precipitable cell wall polymer impacts plant growth as exemplified by the Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase mutant ray1.” Mol. Plant 6(4):1369-1372.
  • R. H. Dahl, F. Zhang, J. Alonso-Gutierrez, E. Baidoo, T. S. Batth, A. M. Redding-Johanson, C. J. Petzold, A. Mukhopadhyay, T. Soon Lee, P. D. Adams, and J. D. Keasling. 2013. “Engineering dynamic pathway regulation using stress-response promoters.” Nat. Biotechnol. 31(11):1039-1046. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2689.
  • J. D. Keasling and J. C. Venter. 2013. “Applications of synthetic biology to enhance life.” The Bridge 43:47-58.
  • P. Javidpour, J. H. Pereira, E. B. Goh, R. P. McAndrew, S. M. Ma, G. D. Friedland, J. D. Keasling, S. R. Chhabra, P. D. Adams, and H. R. Beller. 2014. “Biochemical and structural studies of NADH-dependent FabG used to increase the bacterial production of fatty acids under anaerobic conditions.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80(2):497-505. doi: 10.1128/AEM.03194-13
  • W. Runguphan and J. D. Keasling. 2014. “Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals. Met. Eng. 21:103-113.
  • T. L. Ruegg, E. M. Kim, B. A. Simmons, J. D. Keasling, S. W. Singer, T. S. Lee, and M. P. Thelen. 2014. “An auto-inducible mechanism for ionic liquid resistance in microbial biofuel production.” Nat. Commun. 5:3490.
  • S. Sarria, B. Wong, H. G. Martin, J. D. Keasling, and P. Peralta-Yahya. “Microbial synthesis of pinine.” ACS Synth. Biol. 3:466-475.
  • K. W. George, A. Chen, A. Jain. T. S. Batth, E. E. Baidoo, G. Wang, P. D. Adams, C. J. Petzold, J. D. Keasling, and T. S. Lee. 2014. “Correlation analysis of targeted proteins and metabolites to assess and engineering microbial isopentenol production.” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 111(8):1648-1658.
  • S. Rodriguez, J. Kirby, C. M. Denby, and J. D. Keasling. 2014. “Production and quantification of sesquiterpenes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including extraction, detection and quantification of terpene products and ket related metabolites.” Nat. Protoc. 9(8):1980-96. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2014.132.
  • J. Kirby, M. Nishimoto, R. W. Chow, V. N. Pasumarthi, R. Chan, L. J. Chan, C. J. Petzold, and J. D. Keasling. 2014. “Use of non-ionic surfactants for improvement of terpene production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.” Appl. Environ. MIcrobiol. 80(21):6685-6693.
  • E.-B. Goh, E. E. Baidoo, H. Burd, T. S. Lee, Jay D Keasling, and H. Beller. 2014. “Substantial improvements in methyl ketone production in E. coli and insights on the pathway from in vitro studies.” Met. Eng. 26:67-76.
  • Y. Kung, R. P. McAndrew, X. Xie, C. C. Liu, J. H. Pereira, P. D. Adams, and J. D. Keasling. 2014. “Constructing tailored isoprenoid products by structure-guided modification of geranylgeranyl reductase.” Structure 22(7):1028-1036.
  • M. Frederix, K. Hütter, J. Leu, T. S. Batth, W. J. Turner, T. L. Rüegg, H. W. Blanch, B. A. Simmons, P. D. Adams, J. D. Keasling, M. P. Thelen, M. J. Dunlop, C. J. Petzold, and A. Mukhopadhyay. 2014. “Development of a native Escherichia coli induction system for ionic liquid tolerance.” PLoS One 9(7):e101115. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101115
  • R. W. Haushalter, W. Kim, T. A. Chavkin, L. The, M. E. Garber, M. Nhan, C. J. Petzold, L. Katz, and J. D. Keasling. 2014. “Production of anteiso-branched fatty acids in Escherichia coli; next generation biofuels with improved cold-flow properties.” Met. Eng. 26:111-118. doi, 10.1016/j.ymben.2014.09.002.
  • J. L. Foo, H. M. Jensen, R. H. Dahl, K. George, J. D. Keasling, T. S. Lee, S. Leong, A. Mukhopadhyay. 2014. “Improving Microbial Biogasoline Production in Escherichia coli Using Tolerance Engineering.” mBio 5(6):e01932-14. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01932-14.
  • L. J. Weaver, M. M. Sousa, G. Wang, E. Baidoo, C. J. Petzold, and J. D. Keasling. 2015. “A kinetic-based approach to understanding heterologous mevalonate pathway function in E. coli.” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 112(1):111-119.
  • J. Kirby, M. Nishimoto, R. W. Chow, E. E. Baidoo, G. Wang. J. Martin, W. Schackwitz, R. Chan, J. L. Fortman, and J. D. Keasling. 2015. “Enhancing terpene yield from sugars via novel routes to 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 81:130-138.
  • J. Alonso-Gutierrez, E.-M. Kim; T. S. Batth, N. Cho, Q. Hu, L. J. G. Chan, C. J. Petzold, Nathan J Hillson, P. D. Adams, J. D. Keasling, H. Garcia-Martin, and T. S. Lee. 2015. “Principal component analysis of proteomics (PCAP) as a tool to direct metabolic engineering.” Met. Eng. 28:123-133.
  • J.L. Foo, A.V. Susanto, J.D. Keasling, S.S. Leong, M.W. Chang. Whole cell biocatalytic and de novo production of alkanes from free fatty acids in Sacchromyces cervisiae. 2016. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 999: 1-6.
  • A. Kang, K.W. George, G. Wang, E. Baidoo, J.D. Keasling, T.S. Lee. 2016. Isopentyl diphosphate (IPP)-bypass mevalonate pathways for isopentenol production. Met. Eng. 34: 25-35.